GITRL is expressed on dendritic cells (DC), monocytes, macrophages, B cells, activated T cells, endothelial cells, osteoclasts and various healthy non-lymphoid tissues (e. g. testis, . ). GITRL is constitutively expressed and released as soluble form by solid tumors and various hematopoietic malignancies. GITRL causes differentiation of osteoclasts, activation of macrophages, but also alteration of carcinoma and leukemia cells and influences apoptosis. Binding to GITR is important in regulating T-cell proliferation and TCR-mediated apoptosis. GITRL is implicated in development of autoimmune diseases and in the immune response against infectious pathogens and tumors.
ELISA: (direct and indirect: 1:5,000-1:10,000). Flow Cytometry: (1:1,000). Western Blot: (1:2,000-1:5,000 using ECL. Suggested blocking and dilution buffer is TBST with 0.05% Tween 20 with 5% skim milk. Suggested incubation time is 1 hour at room temperature). Optimal conditions must be determined individually for each application.